The main characteristic of Bulgaria's topography is alternating bands of high and low terrain that extend east to west across the country. From north to south, those bands are the Danubian Plateau, the Balkan Mountains (called Stara Planina, meaning old mountains in Bulgarian), the central Thracian Plain, and the Rhodope Mountains. The easternmost sections near the Black Sea are hilly, but they gradually gain height to the west until the westernmost part of the country is entirely high ground.
The Balkan Mountains originate at the Timok Valley in Yugoslavia and run southward towards the Sofia Basin in west central Bulgaria. From there they run east to the Black Sea.
The Rhodope Mountains occupy the area between the Thracian Plain and the Greek border to the south.
The largest basin in Bulgaria is the Sofia Basin.
Sofia is the capital city of Bulgaria. Other important cities are Plovdiv, Varna, Bourgas, Rousse, Stara Zagora, Pleven